White papers

Here you can find an assortment of white papers covering various themes in the areas of measuement, testing control and automation. Have fun!

Anyone who measures currents that are determined by power management, sleep modes and the transitions between modes of operation is faced with extreme dynamics that take conventional measurement technology to its limits. Auto-ranging offers new possibilities, but also new challenges.

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No measurement is exact! Therefore, the calculation of the measurement uncertainty provides certainty with regard to the measurement result. imc FAMOS 7.1 allows to analyze effects of measurements uncertainties for almost each algorithm written as sequence.

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Calibration with strain gauges and bridge measurements: balancing, symmetry, calibration offset, 1/4 bridge...

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Measurement of individual, cascading cell voltages present a measurement engineering challenge. While the cell voltages are typically only a few Volts, connecting the cells in series produces a high voltage level on the basis of which the cell voltage must be measured. This whitepaper indicates what to look for in performing such measurements and helps in selecting the appropriate measurement amplifier.

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imc measurement systems offer stand-alone operation and can store measurement data directly in the device. Frequently, the removable storage media comes in the form of flash cards. They are considered to be robust and easy to handle. However, some simple precautions must be noted when using this type of storage when conducting measurements.

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EtherCAT was designed with the goal of supporting the standard Ethernet and to be deployed at minimal hardware costs in real-time control tasks with rapid update cycles and low jitter.

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Many products and processes must now be simulated because a reproducible environment for further development of products is necessary. This white paper covers these topics.

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DC-motors are used in a wide variety of applications touching our daily lives, where they serve to relieve us of much work. However, the large number of DC-motors used is attended by a large amount of time and resources devoted to inspecting them at the end of their production cycle. This white paper covers these topics.

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Recently, we have often heard of sigma-delta (ΣΔ) - converters being used in various test and measurement applications. In fact, in many imc Meßsysteme systems and devices (imc CRONOScompact, imc CANSAS, ...) these converters come as standard hardware. How does such a converter function, why is its importance increasing so rapidly and what are the benefits for the engineers and technicians? The purpose of this white paper is to address and provide answers and explanations to these questions.

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Universal measuring modules provide fast and individual adjustments for various measurement applications. The capability to monitor limits in real time, including the settings for individual measurement amplifiers, triggers and memory options is indispensable. In addition, intelligent measurement connectors also allow mathematical and statistical analysis of measurement data in real time. As a result, in addition to simple data collection (data logger operations), complex monitoring of conditions and analysis functions is possible.

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In the area of physical measurement technology, temperature is the most frequently measured variable. Especially in the field of process technology, the temperature measurements are the "metrological backbone". In imc measurement devices, in the area of so-called "Mixed Signal Applications", there is hardly a measuring device available that comes without temperature-measuring capability. In this white paper, temperature measurement techniques will be illustrated of the two most common temperature sensors: the Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD) (Pt100) and the thermocouple.

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The use of incremental encoders has become indispensable in virtually all areas of industry. Its uses can be found for making simple dis-placement measurements on assembly lines, tool and die factories, robots, etc. This white paper is part 1 of a 2-part series covering the topic of incremental encoders.

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Incremental encoders are used in virtually all areas of industry when it comes to the measurement of displacement , angles, velocities, RPM, etc. The measurement of derived quantities comes from the measurement of time. In the previous White Paper (part 1), the basic operation principals & fundamental signal evaluation possibilities were covered when it comes to single-track incremental encoders. In part 2 of this series, further evaluation possibilities are discussed.

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To determine the uncertainty in the results of a single-channel measurement, one must consider the contributions from both the sensor’s uncertainty and the uncertainty of the measurement channel. Results from multiple measurement channels face even greater complications. This White Paper explains the theoretical background for, as well as the practical steps taken to handle these multi-channel measurement uncertainties.

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How does one select the right measurement system structure for a given measurement task? Should channels be sampled simultaneously, in synchronization, or is it sufficient for the channels to be sampled sequentially using an analog multiplexer? Anyone making multi-channel measurements is confronted with this issue. This white paper covers these exact questions.

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